Nollywood is Africa’s first economically viable film industry and one of the greatest explosions of popular culture ever seen on the continent. Nigerian film, long known for B-grade fare, is now producing high-quality movies able to compete internationally – allowing Africans to tell their own stories to the world.Lizelle BisschoffThe film industry of Nigeria has been described as one of the greatest explosions of popular culture that Africa has ever seen. It is the first economically self-sustainable film industry in Africa.Initially through the use of video technology, and now affordable digital technology, Nigeria produces more than 2000 films per year. The industry, popularly called Nollywood, is currently ranked as the second-largest in the world in terms of output after India’s Bollywood.Nollywood’s popularity has spread across the African continent, to the African diaspora in Europe, North America and Australia. It has even gone as far as the Caribbean and Pacific Islands.Watch the trailer for October 1, the latest film by award-winning Nigerian director Kunle Afolayan:The appeal of homegrown stories and charactersBut it is in Africa that Nollywood has had the greatest impact. For African audiences who have for decades been fed imported films, the development of a local, homegrown film industry is hugely significant and important.The industry is an example of Africans being empowered to tell their own stories to the world and to each other, using their own creativity, platforms and experience.Nollywood’s popularity has spread across the continent and Nollywood films are watched all over Africa, from Kenya and Tanzania to Cameroon, Guinea and Togo. They are sometimes dubbed or translated through live interpretation at public screenings.The model has also been exported and adapted across the continent. Video-film industries have been emerging in many countries, including Riverwood in Kenya, Ugawood in Uganda and Bongowood in Tanzania. There are also similar industries in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Cameroon, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Zambia, South Africa and Zimbabwe.The most obvious explanation is that the films display familiar and recognisable cultural beliefs, lifestyles, traditions, societal and sociocultural structures, histories, settings and locations. Their themes and narratives tap into the fears, dreams and aspirations of audiences.Nollywood seems set to expand, grow and diversify along with audience tastes, viewing habits and the industry’s technological advancements. This is evident in the hugely popular Tanzanian video-film industry, Bongowood.Born out of adversityGoing back to the beginning, the seeds of Nollywood were planted in financial turmoil in the late 1980s. Nigeria was experiencing difficulties as a result of political unrest and measures imposed by the International Monetary Fund and World Bank.This economic climate made film-making on celluloid prohibitively expensive, and created a fertile ground for other, more affordable methods to develop. Nigerian businessman Kenneth Nnebue is generally credited with producing the first major Nollywood film, Living in Bondage (1992).The film follows the tale of a man who joins a secret cult and murders his wife in a ritual sacrifice to gain wealth. It is set within the thematic and stylistic characteristics of superstition, witchcraft, religion, the quest for upward mobility and melodrama in Lagos’s urban landscape.It explores corruption, love triangles and domestic disputes – all themes that have since been replicated in many Nollywood narratives.Watch Living in Bondage in full:Click here to watch Part 2 of Living in Bondage. From VHS to digitalSince the VHS industry of the 1990s, Nollywood has embraced digital technology. The industry captures the entrepreneurial spirit of Nigeria through the use of affordable and accessible technology. These are small-scale digital cameras, desktop editing software, and distribution primarily on DVD and video compact disc. These sell for around $2 per copy in Nigeria, and are watched at home, on street corners, in cineclubs or in video parlours.While the term Nollywood is generally used to refer to the entire industry, it is important to note that it is not unified. There is a great deal of diversity and many different variations. Different genres exist, including horror, melodrama, comedy and action, as well as language divisions. It also includes films in English, Yoruba, Igbo and Hausa.Watch the 2002 comedy Aka Gum in full:Despite its enormous output, financing remains low, with the average budget for a Nollywood film being around $20 000 to $75 000 (around R270 000 to R1-million). The industry is often criticised for low production values. It is characterised by rapid turnaround times, the lack of script development, bad lighting and sound, low-budget special effects and amateur editing.Directors are mostly self-taught, and are often less important and lower down the Nollywood food chain than stars, producers and distributors. Distributors often act as producers.Despite all of this, the popularity of Nollywood demands film aficionados, scholars, festivals and cinema programmers take it seriously. A growing body of Nollywood scholarship has emerged over the past 15 years.From budget to blockbusterA number of Nollywood directors have started to make higher quality films. These are sometimes referred to as “New Nollywood”, New Nigerian Cinema, or the New Wave. These films are seen more widely than standard Nollywood fare and are accessible to non-African audiences. New Nollywood includes the work of directors such as Kunle Afolayan, Obi Emelonye, Jeta Amata, Stephanie Okereke and Mahmood Ali-Balogun.The budgets for these films have also increased considerably, ranging from $250,000 to $750,000 (R3.4-million to R10-milllion). The production cycles are also much longer. The New Nollywood films should therefore be recognised as very different from the low-budget video format films.Red-carpet premieres attracting huge audiences now take place regularly across the world from Nigeria to other African cities and urban centres with a big African diaspora. Film festivals internationally have also picked up on its huge popularity. Special programmes with a Nollywood focus have taken place in Paris, London and New York, among others.Nollywood can also be watched on pay-TV networks and free-to-air broadcasters across the continent and beyond. South Africa’s M-Net, which broadcasts across Africa, has channels dedicated to Nollywood. Intrepid distributors, mostly from the African diaspora, have created video-on-demand platforms for Nollywood. One example is the huge iROKOv. This has increased accessibility to African diaspora audiences.Even Netflix has acquired a number of Nigerian films, indicative of the platform’s realisation of Nollywood’s popularity and commercial potential across the world.Watch the trailer for the 2013 drama Finding Mercy, one of the Nollywood movies now available on Netflix:Lizelle Bisschoff is a Research Fellow in Theatre, Film and Television Studies at the University of GlasgowThis article was originally published on The Conversation. Read the original article.
13 March 2015The Castle Lager Proteas are building good momentum as they head to the quarter- finals of the 2015 ICC Cricket World Cup.The South Africans finished the group stages with a 146-run win over the United Arab Emirates (UAE) on Thursday.The Proteas are virtually guaranteed second place in Pool B. Either Pakistan or Ireland could finish level with the South Africans on 8 points, but they have virtually no chance of overturning the vast difference in net run rate.The Proteas’ likely quarter-final opponents are Sri Lanka, who are currently second in Pool A, but there is an outside possibility that they could play Australia or Bangladesh. For that to happen, there would have to be at least one major upset with Bangladesh playing New Zealand in their last pool match and Australia taking on Scotland.Man-of-the-match AB de Villiers once again proved his versatility when he first laid the platform for the Proteas total after they had been sent into bat – and then he led the acceleration into the final 15 overs.He made top score of 99 (82 balls, 6 fours and 4 sixes) and in the process set a World Cup record for the most sixes at a tournament. He has now hit 20 sixes to go past the 18 sixes that Matthew Hayden hit at the 2007 edition.The South African captain is the second player after Kumar Sangakkara to achieve an aggregate of 400 runs for the competition.For good measure, De Villiers also returned career best bowling figures of 2/15 and is, statistically speaking, the leading all-rounder in the side.Morne Morkel (2/23) was the pick of the South African attack. He is now the joint second leading wicket-taker at the tournament (13).De Villiers said afterwards that the game was a good all-round exercise for his squad. Most of the batsmen spent some valuable time out in the middle, along with the part- time bowlers, who went for 3 for 38 runs in 10 overs.“It was a good performance, these are always tricky games,” De Villiers said after the match. “I thought they [UAE] bowled pretty well up front and made it difficult for us. It was one of my harder knocks out there today, it was really hard work.“We got a nice foundation again, which I’m very happy about, so we could free up nicely towards the end. I’m also happy about the fact that Quinny [De Kock] and Farhaan [Behardien] scored some runs. Some of the lower-order also got an opportunity to hit a couple of balls, even Vernon [Philander] got in. Those kind of things will definitely help us going into the knock-out round.”De Villiers says it was a difficult decision not to give some of the fringe players a go, especially Aaron Phangiso, who is yet to play a game. But he said he could trust the left- arm spinner to perform if he was needed.“It was a tough decision for us,” De Villiers said. “We were very tempted to play Phangiso in the team. It’s been a long tour for him, but his attitude has been superb, and I’ve got to compliment him on that. He works really hard in the nets. I know what he’s capable of, so I won’t be worried if something were to happen to Imran Tahir and we’ll have to play him in one of the knock-out games.Phangiso’s a “big-match player, he always has been”, he said. “I bowled him in those final overs in PE for a reason – because he’s always that kind of guy that wins you a match when it matters most. If his opportunity comes, I know he’ll grab it with both hands.”The Proteas travel to Sydney on Saturday where they will await confirmation of their quarter-final opponents.WORLD CUP MATCHESGroup matches15 February, 3am: South Africa beat Zimbabwe.22 February, 5.30am: India beat South Africa.27 February, 5.30am: South beat West Indies.3 March, 5.30am: South Africa beat Ireland.7 March, 3am: Pakistan beat South Africa.12 March, 3am: South Africa beat United Arab Emirates.Quaterfinals18 March, 5.30am: Sydney Cricket Ground19 March, 5.30am: Melbourne Cricket Ground20 March, 5.30am: Adelaide Oval21 March, 3am: Westpac Stadium, WellingtonSemifinals24 March, 3am: Eden Park, Auckland26 March, 5.30am: Sydney Cricket GroundFinal29 March, 5.30am: Melbourne Cricket GroundCricket South Africa
In the short video below, Dr. Patricia Kuhl, professor of Speech and Hearing Sciences and co-director of the Institute for Learning & Brain Sciences at the University of Washington, discusses the science of language acquisition as it relates to brain development in very young children. But what happens when a child has a disability? In the upcoming Family Development Early Intervention webinar on Nov. 3 entitled Quality Interactions Between Professionals and Families to Enhance Child Learning, our speaker Dr. Carol Trivette will discuss brain development and early language development and how providers can foster strong interactions between caregivers and children with disabilities to enhance child learning.Join us on Nov. 3 at 11 a.m. EST for this great webinar. Details can be found on the event page.This post was edited by Robyn DiPietro-Wells & Amy Santos. Ph. D., members of the MFLN FD Early Intervention team, which aims to support the development of professionals working with military families. Find out more about the Military Families Learning Network FD concentration on our website, on Facebook, on Twitter, and YouTube.
Kammuri turning to super typhoon less likely but possible — Pagasa “I don’t know, honestly. I’m not good enough for him,” Kyrgios responded. “You know, he’s very dedicated. He’s an unbelievable coach. You know, he probably deserves a player that is probably more dedicated to the game than I am. He deserves a better athlete than me.”When a reporter returned to that topic, asking Kyrgios to explain what he meant, he said: “I’m not dedicated to the game at all.”“I mean, you know what I mean: There are players out there that are more dedicated, that want to get better, that strive to get better every day. The ‘one-percenters.’ I’m not that guy.”Asked whether he envisions ever being “that guy,” Kyrgios answered: “I really don’t know. Probably not. Honestly not.”He then referenced his impressive run in Cincinnati and described his routine there.ADVERTISEMENT MOST READ The 14th-seeded Kyrgios lamented the injured right shoulder that limited his effectiveness from the third set on during a 6-3, 1-6, 6-4, 6-1 exit against another Australian, 235th-ranked John Millman. Kyrgios called the series of health issues that have hampered him all year “diabolical.” He stated that he doesn’t care enough about working hard and, therefore, his coach should find someone else to work with.And he closed by covering his face while saying, “I keep letting people down.”FEATURED STORIESSPORTSWATCH: Drones light up sky in final leg of SEA Games torch runSPORTSSEA Games: Philippines picks up 1st win in men’s water poloSPORTSMalditas save PH from shutoutKyrgios is a supremely talented and temperamental 22-year-old who has reached two Grand Slam quarterfinals and just this month beat 15-time major champion Rafael Nadal en route to the final of the Cincinnati Masters. He is also someone who gets in trouble for his on-court actions, such as lobbing insults at his opponent or being accused of not giving his best effort.When Kyrgios was asked Wednesday whether he plans to continue being coached by former player Sebastien Grosjean, the reply was rather startling — or rather, would have been, coming from any other professional athlete. Read Next LOOK: Venues for 2019 SEA Games SEA Games in Calabarzon safe, secure – Solcom chief Trending Articles PLAY LIST 00:50Trending Articles00:50Trending Articles00:50Trending Articles01:37Protesters burn down Iran consulate in Najaf01:47Panelo casts doubts on Robredo’s drug war ‘discoveries’01:29Police teams find crossbows, bows in HK university01:35Panelo suggests discounted SEA Games tickets for students02:49Robredo: True leaders perform well despite having ‘uninspiring’ boss02:42PH underwater hockey team aims to make waves in SEA Games UPLB exempted from SEA Games class suspension Catriona Gray spends Thanksgiving by preparing meals for people with illnesses Brace for potentially devastating typhoon approaching PH – NDRRMC Don’t miss out on the latest news and information. “I was playing basketball … every day for two hours. Like, I played an hour of basketball before I played (2013 French Open runner-up) David Ferrer in the semifinal,” he said. “I was … getting a milk shake every day. I was less dedicated. And this week I was dedicated — and my shoulder starts hurting.”Against Millman, Kyrgios’ shoulder was massaged by a trainer during changeovers in the third set. During that set, Kyrgios also had an argument with chair umpire Carlos Ramos after being warned for using bad language.Kyrgios pleaded that he hadn’t said anything improper, but Ramos said a linesperson had reported him.“For obvious reasons,” Ramos said, “I cannot repeat what he said you said.”As for his body, Kyrgios stopped playing during Wimbledon because of a hip injury — part of a three-match run in which he retired each time.“I have had a diabolical year at these Slams. It doesn’t surprise me. It’s just the story of my career, really. I will have good weeks; I’ll have bad weeks,” he said. “It’s just a roller-coaster.” Stephon Marbury has emotional moment with Beijing fan at Q&A WATCH: Streetboys show off slick dance moves in Vhong Navarro’s wedding Typhoon Kammuri accelerates, gains strength en route to PH LATEST STORIES Nick Kyrgios of Australia returns a shot to John Millman of Australia during their first round Men’s Singles match on Day Three of the 2017 US Open at the USTA Billie Jean King National Tennis Center on August 30, 2017 in the Flushing neighborhood of the Queens borough of New York City. Richard Heathcote/Getty Images/AFPNEW YORK — A post-loss news conference with Nick Kyrgios often feels more like a therapy session, and Wednesday at the U.S. Open was no exception.There was a lot to unpack afterward.ADVERTISEMENT View comments
Smriti IraniThe new Human Resources Development minister Smriti Irani has been slammed by a section of the Indian polity and on social media for discrepancies in her educational qualification. The technical problems in her resume, as pointed out by a former sports minister with a BA degree, and the brouhaha around it are slaps on the face of the Indian education system.Here are six reasons why:1) An Indian degree is the most useless piece of document when it comes to measuring a person’s capabilities.2) We do not want to give Irani marks on her ability to cram up, but should rather laud her acumen to resolve the nation’s core issues of human resources and development.3) Degrees are not equal to Competence for HRD minister. Look at the track record of recent HRD ministers. Kapil Sibal had a law degree and Dr Murli Manohar Joshi had a PhD. They did not fare too well as HRD ministers.4) There’s a sharp mind behind that voice, both on and off the television screen. As a spokesman for the Bharatiya Janata Party, she has given enough evidence that she is intelligent, quick-witted and always well-prepared for a debate, even if the topic is on the ban of cow slaughter.5) She’s a college dropout, but a successful TV actress. She has worked hard to get there.6) Personalities who never finished school – Rabindranath Tagore, Bill Gates, Steve Jobs and former Brazilian president Lula da Silva – to name a few.
Lobera: Jeison Murillo could replace Lenglet at Barcelonaby Carlos Volcano10 months agoSend to a friendShare the loveFormer Las Palmas coach Sergio Lobera is pleased for Jeison Murillo over his move to Barcelona.Murillo has joined Barca on-loan with the option to sign permanently from Valencia.Lobera said, “He is a player who when he played in Segunda B in Ceuta I suffered from him as a rival when he played in Cádiz. “He has a very good profile for Barça. He has good passing, technically he is very good, tactically also and has personality to play the Barça style. “He has good aerial play, is very competitive and is also a great person.”He added: “I think he can play even before Clement Lenglet. At an experience level the Frenchman would probably have more, but if given the opportunity, he could be the big surprise.” TagsTransfersAbout the authorCarlos VolcanoShare the loveHave your say
About the authorFreddie TaylorShare the loveHave your say Heaton confident Burnley won’t get ahead of themselvesby Freddie Taylor9 months agoSend to a friendShare the loveTom Heaton believes there is no one at Burnley who is getting carried away.The Clarets managed to down Fulham 2-1 on Saturday, which gives them four straight wins.The result also put them in 15th position, three points off 18th place Newcastle and the drop zone.But keeper Heaton knows there is still a long way to go. He knows another set of poor results could put them right back in trouble.”No-one is getting carried away,” said Heaton after the game.”Three wins in the Premier League is a good achievement but we need to make sure we keep moving things forward.”It feels great. The West Ham game gave us a real platform and we took that into the Huddersfield game.”
ROME – Migrants in distress at sea have told their rescuers that several ships passed them by without offering assistance, a European aid group said Sunday while seeking safe harbour for a rescue vessel with 141 migrants aboard.SOS Mediterranee in a statement said that due to the recent refusal of Italy and Malta to let rescue vessels carrying migrants dock, ships might be now unwilling to get involved fearing they will be stranded with migrants aboard and denied a port to disembark them.On Friday the group’s chartered ship Aquarius, which it operates in partnership with Doctors Without Borders, rescued 141 people in waters off Libya. Of these, 25 were found adrift on a small wooden boat that had no motor and was believed to have been at sea for about 35 hours, the group said. The other 116 people, including 67 unaccompanied minors, were rescued later that day, it said.Nearly three-quarters of those rescued originate from Somalia and Eritrea. Many migrants recounted how they were “held in inhumane conditions in Libya,” where human traffickers are based, the aid group aid.It added that Libya’s rescue co-ordination authorities wouldn’t provide the Aquarius with “a place of safety” and asked it to request safe harbour from another country’s authorities.The Aquarius was sailing north in the Mediterranean Sunday in hopes of receiving docking permission from another country.SOS Mediterranee said that “in a disturbing development, rescued people on board told out teams they encountered five different ships which did not offer them assistance before they were rescued by Aquarius.”Aboard Aquarius is Doctors Without Borders project co-ordinator, Aloys Vimard, who elaborated.“It seems the very principle of rendering assistance to persons in distress at sea is now at stake. Ships might be unwilling to respond to those in distress due to the high risk of being stranded and denied a place of safety,” the statement quoted Vimard as saying.SOS Mediterranee said many of those aboard were extremely week and malnourished. Those rescued in recent years have said they receive scanty rations while kept in Libya to await the opportunity to leave on human smugglers’ unseaworthy boats.“What is of utmost importance is that the survivors are brought to a place of safety without delay, where their basic needs can be met and where they can be protected from abuse,” the group quoted Nick Romaniuk, its search and rescue co-ordinator as saying.In June, Aquarius was forced to sail north for days with more than 600 migrants to Spain after Italy and Malta refused it docking permission. Since then, other private rescue vessels have had to wait for days until some country agreed to let migrants disembark.Italy’s new populist government has vowed that no more private aid ships will bring migrants to Italian shores.Although arrivals in Italy of rescued migrants smuggled from Libya have sharply dropped off this year compared to previous years, some 600,000 reached Italian ports in the last few years. Italy demands fellow European Union countries take the asylum-seekers from Africa, Asia and the Middle East.The tiny EU island nation of Malta says it can’t handle large numbers of migrants.Cargo and other commercial vessels often have plucked migrants to safety from deflating rubber dinghies and rickety wooden boats. But with Italy’s crackdown, commercial ships risk being blocked for days at sea, unable to carry out their business. Recently a support ship for an offshore oil platform was left in limbo for days after rescuing migrants.SOS Mediterranee said the Libya rescue co-ordinationcentre didn’t inform it about migrant boats in distress despite knowing the Aquarius was nearby.“It was extremely fortunate that we spotted these boats in distress ourselves” on Friday, the group said.Frances D’Emilio is on twitter at www.twitter.com/fdemilio
New Delhi: Going paperless, driving licences and vehicle registration certificates will now be issued as plastic cards in a standard format across the country. The option of providing a paper or booklet-based driving licence or registration certificate has been done away with, the Ministry of Road Transport and Highways said on Thursday. Under the new norms notified by the ministry, states would have an option to issue the two documents in the form of cards, which would be either made of PVC (Polyvinyl Chloride) or of Poly Carbonate. Also Read – Maruti cuts production for 8th straight month in Sep”The Ministry of Road Transport and Highways has prescribed a common standard format and design of the Driving Licence and the Certificate of Registration for the entire country. The option of providing a paper or booklet based driving licence or the registration certificate has been done away with,” the ministry said in a release. The specifications for the cards are high standard and would enable durable and quality cards, it added. According to the ministry, state governments have been given the option to decide on the type of material that can be used for making the cards. Further, states can prescribe whether it should be a chip-based smart card or a card with contact-less features such as QR code. “A QR code has been prescribed on the cards. This would enable easy linking and access and validation of the information on the cards with the SARATHI or VAHAN database,” the release said.
Less than a week ago, the Tampa Bay Lightning were heavy betting favorites to win the Stanley Cup, and for good reason. The Bolts entered the playoffs on the heels of one of the best regular seasons in NHL history. They tied the record for the most regular-season wins1Their 62 wins matched the total of the Detroit Red Wings in 1995-96. and finished with the fourth-highest point total in league history. Forward Nikita Kucherov scored 128 points and will almost surely win the Hart Memorial Trophy as the league’s most valuable player, and Steven Stamkos had the best season of his already illustrious career.As a team, the Bolts were unparalleled — they paced the league in goals scored, power-play goals scored, shooting percentage and penalty kill percentage. If the team that Steve Yzerman built was ever going to acquire some silverware, this would surely be the year.Unfortunately for the Lightning, their astonishing regular-season form hasn’t carried over to the postseason, and now they find themselves on the precipice of an unprecedented failure: If they lose Tuesday night in Columbus, they’ll be the first Presidents’ Trophy winners to be swept out of the first round of the postseason in history. Even if they aren’t swept but merely lose the series, Tampa’s collapse would be monumental — devastating for any team but especially so for a club that’s been knocking on the door of Stanley Cup glory for several years. How have things gone so wrong for the team from the Gulf Coast?For starters, Tampa’s high-scoring superstars seem to have forgotten what the net looks like. Stamkos hasn’t recorded a point, neither has Brayden Point, and the only thing Kucherov has recorded is a one-game suspension for an extraordinarily dirty hit on Blue Jackets defenseman Markus Nutivaara. Meanwhile, the opposite is true for the Jackets: Matt Duchene and Artemi Panarin — subjects of a major trade and a major nontrade, respectively — are scoring at will, while Zach Werenski is providing service from the blue line.Things aren’t much different between the pipes. Tampa goalie Andrei Vasilevskiy has been uncharacteristically abysmal: He has stopped just 86.6 percent of the shots he’s faced so far, which ranks second to last in the postseason among qualifying goalies. This is somewhat stunning, especially given the Russian’s previous postseason form: In 29 postseason appearances between 2014 and 2018, he stopped 91.9 percent of the shots he faced. This spring’s regression couldn’t have come at a worst time.On the other side of the ice, Columbus goalie Sergei Bobrovsky has been nearly unbeatable, stopping 94 percent of the shots he’s faced — which is good for second-best. None of this bodes well for the Bolts because save percentage is the single most important determinant of a team’s goals-per-game differential in the postseason, and therefore the key to a playoff run.As if circumstances could get any worse, Tampa is unraveling against a team that has never won a playoff series. In fact, Columbus had never won more than two games in a single postseason before this one. It’s one thing to be swept by a franchise that has won four Stanley Cups, as may happen to the Pittsburgh Penguins at the hands of the New York Islanders; it’s an entirely different thing to get bounced by a franchise that’s never advanced to the second round.We wrote last week that anything short of lifting the Stanley Cup in June would feel like a failure for the Bolts and would put them in the same company as the 1995-96 Red Wings, another set of historically great losers. But if the Bolts are dispatched in four games, their failure would have to be considered more embarrassing. After all, that Red Wings team advanced to the conference finals before crashing out of the postseason. This Bolts team might not even win a game.Only four teams have managed to overcome a 3-0 series deficit in the history of the Stanley Cup playoffs. If any team is up to the task, it’s this immensely talented Bolts group. But first, they’ll have to remember how to put the puck into the net of their opponent. Otherwise, they will make history for all the wrong reasons.